Creative Placemaking

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National Endowment for the Arts, United States Conference of Mayors, American Architectural Foundation
Ann Markusen (Markusen Economic Research Services), Anne Gadwa (Matris Arts Consulting)

Creative PlacemakingCreative Placemaking explores the livability and economic development outcomes of creative placemaking, whereby cross-sector partners strategically shape the physical and social character of locales around arts and cultural activities. The research summarizes two decades of creative American placemaking, drawing on original economic research and case studies of path breaking initiatives in large and small cities, metropolitan to rural.

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The report is a resource for mayors, arts organizations, the philanthropic sector, and others interested in understanding strategies for leveraging the arts to help shape and revitalize the physical, social, and economic character of neighborhoods, cities, and towns. A white paper for The Mayors’ Institute on City Design, a leadership initiative of the National Endowment for the Arts in partnership with the United States Conference of Mayors and American Architectural Foundation.

Table of Contents

Arts, Culture And Creativity As Placemakers

   Creative Placemaking Scale And Strategy
   Outcomes: Livability And Economic Development 
Creative Places As Incubators Of Arts And Cultural Enterprise
   The Creative Economy
   Creative Workers And Entrepreneurs
   Cultural Industries 
Challenges For Creative Placemaking
   Forging And Sustaining Partnerships
   Countering Community Skepticism
   Assembling Adequate Financing
   Clearing Regulatory Hurdles
   Ensuring Maintenance And Sustainability
   Avoiding Displacement And Gentrification
   Developing Metrics For Performance And Evaluation 
Components Of Successful Placemaking Initiatives
   Creative Initiators
   Designing Around Distinctiveness
   Mobilizing Public Will
   Garnering Private Sector Support
   Securing Arts Community Engagement 
Conclusion: Toward A Creative Placemaking Policy Platform
   Placemaking Policy Platform
   The Creative Economy
   Creative Workers And Entrepreneurs
   Cultural Industries 


Case study
Culture and the Arts
Local economy
Partnership Building
Rural CED
Urban Development

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